WEDNESDAY, May 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Twenty-eight more illnesses caused by an E. coli outbreak tied to tainted romaine lettuce were reported by U.S. health officials on Wednesday.
So far, a total of 149 cases caused by a particularly virulent strain of E. coli O157:H7 have been reported. There has also been one death recorded, in California, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
"We have many lines of evidence suggesting to us right now that all of these illnesses are connected in some way through romaine grown in the Yuma region [of Arizona]," Matthew Wise, the CDC deputy branch chief for outbreak response, said recently.
The CDC said four more states -- Florida, Minnesota, North Dakota and Texas -- have been hit by the outbreak, bringing the total number of affected states to 29.
Illnesses have often been severe. Of the 129 patients the CDC has good information on, 64 (50 percent) have required hospitalization, the agency noted.
"This is a higher hospitalization rate than usual for E. coli O157:H7 infections, which is usually around 30 percent," the agency said. "Health officials are working to determine why this strain is causing a higher percentage of hospitalizations."
Besides the death recorded in California, 17 patients have developed a dangerous form of kidney failure, the agency said.
The total number of cases by state are: Alaska, 8; Arizona, 8; California, 30; Colorado, 2; Connecticut, 2; Florida, 1; Georgia, 5; Idaho, 11; Illinois, 2; Kentucky, 1; Louisiana, 1; Massachusetts, 3; Michigan, 4; Minnesota, 10; Mississippi, 1; Missouri, 1; Montana, 8; New Jersey, 8; New York, 4; North Dakota, 2; Ohio, 3; Pennsylvania, 20; South Dakota, 1; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 1; Utah, 1; Virginia, 1; Washington, 7; Wisconsin, 2.
E. coli illnesses that occurred at a correctional facility in Alaska have been traced to lettuce grown at Harrison Farms, according to Stic Harris, director of the FDA's Coordinated Outbreak Response and Evaluation Network.
Harris stressed that other area farms could also be affected.
"We are investigating dozens of other fields as potential sources of the [tainted] chopped Romaine lettuce," Harris said.
In April, the CDC warned Americans to toss out any romaine lettuce they might have bought in stores. The agency expanded its warning from just chopped romaine to any and all forms of the lettuce.
The sweeping advisory came after information tied to some new illnesses prompted health officials to caution against eating all kinds of romaine lettuce that came from Yuma, where the outbreak began.
The agency also warned restaurants not to serve romaine lettuce to customers.
And while the tainted romaine lettuce is thought to have originated from the Yuma region, "product labels often do not identify growing regions; so throw out any romaine lettuce if you're uncertain about where it was grown," the agency said in its warning.
Romaine known to be grown in coastal and central California, Florida and central Mexico is not at risk, according to the Produce Marketing Association.
Genetic testing shows that the E. coli strain involved in the outbreak produces a specific type of "Shiga toxin" that causes more severe illness, Wise explained.
This is the biggest Shiga-toxin producing E. coli outbreak since a 2006 outbreak linked to spinach grown in the Salinas Valley in California, Wise said.
In that case, the contamination was traced to a nearby stream half a mile down from a cattle pasture. "The cattle wandered into the stream at liberty, and the strain was found on the pasture land as well," Harris said. "There also were wild pigs running back and forth."
The CDC stressed that E. coli illness can be very serious, even deadly.
Usually, illness sets in "an average of three to four days after swallowing the germ. Most people get diarrhea [often bloody], severe stomach cramps and vomiting," according to the CDC.
For most, recovery will occur within a week, but more severe cases last longer.
"Talk to your doctor if you have symptoms of an E. coli infection and report your illness to your local health department," the agency said.
Find out more about E. coli illness at foodsafety.gov.